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浅谈CO2激光切割的焦点位置控制技术
 

 激光切割的优点之一是光束的能量密度高,一般>10W/cm2。由于能量密度与4/πd2成正比,所以焦点光斑直径尽可能的小,以便产生一窄的切缝;同时焦点光斑直径还和透镜的焦深成正比。


聚焦透镜焦深越小,焦点光斑直径就越小。但切割有飞溅,透镜离工件太近容易将透镜损坏,因此一般大功率CO2激光切割工业应用中广泛采用5〃~7.5〃〞(127~190mm)的焦距。实际焦点光斑直径在0.1~0.4mm之间。对于高质量的切割,有效焦深还和透镜直径及被切材料有关。


例如用5〃的透镜切碳钢,焦深为焦距的+2%范围内,即5mm左右。因此控制焦点相对于被切材料表面的位置十分重要。顾虑到切割质量、切割速度等因素,原则上<6mm的金属材料,焦点在表面上;>6mm的碳钢,焦点在表面之上;>6mm的不锈钢,焦点在表面之下。具体尺寸由实验确定。

 

One of the advantages of laser cutting is that the energy density of the beam is high, which is generally >10W/cm2. Due to the proportional to the energy density and 4 / PI D2, so focal spot diameter as small in order to produce a narrow slit; at the same time of focal spot diameter lens and also is proportional to the focal depth.


The smaller the focal depth, the smaller the focal spot diameter is. But cutting has splash, lens away from the workpiece is too near to will damage the lens, so the general high power CO2 laser cutting technology of industrial application is widely used in the focal length of the 5 "7.5" "127~190mm. The actual focus spot diameter is between 0.1~0.4mm. For high quality cutting, the effective focal depth is also related to the diameter of the lens and the material being cut.


For example, 5 "lens cutting carbon steel, the focal depth of focal length in the range of +2%, which is about 5mm. So it is very important to control the position of the focus with respect to the surface of the material being cut. Concerns about the cutting quality, cutting speed and other factors, in principle, <6mm of metal materials, focus on the surface; >6mm carbon steel, focus on the surface; >6mm stainless steel, focus on the surface. Specific size determined by experiment.

 

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