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浅谈我国早期激光技术的发展

1957年,王大珩等在长春建立了我国第一所光学专业研究所——中国科学院(长春)光学精密仪器机械研究所(简称“光机所”)。在老一辈专家带领下,一批青年科技工作者迅速成长,邓锡铭是其中的突出代表。


In 1957, Wang Daheng in Changchun established China's first professional optical Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Changchun) optical precision instrument and Machinery Research Institute (hereinafter referred to as "machine"). Under the leadership of the older generation of experts, a number of young scientists and technicians to grow rapidly, Deng Ximing is one of the outstanding representatives.


早在1958年美国物理学家肖洛、汤斯关于激光原理的著名论文发表不久,他便积极倡导开展这项新技术研究,在短时间内凝聚了富有创新精神的中青年研究队伍,提出了大量提高光源亮度、单位色性、相干性的设想和实验方案。


As early as in the 1958 American physicist Schawlow and Townes on the principle of laser famous paper published soon, he actively advocated to carry out the research of the new technology, in a short period of time condensed innovative spirit in the youth team, large increase the brightness of the light source, color unit, the coherence of the ideas and experimental scheme is proposed.


1960年世界第一台激光器问世。


In 1960 the world's first laser came out.


1961年夏,在王之江主持下,我国第一台红宝石激光器研制成功。此后短短几年内,激光技术迅速发展,产生了一批先进成果。各种类型的固体、气体、半导体和化学激光器相继研制成功。


In the summer of 1961, under the auspices of Wang Zhijiang, the first ruby laser was successfully developed in China. In the next few years, the rapid development of laser technology, resulting in a number of advanced results. Various types of solid, gas, semiconductor and chemical lasers have been successfully developed.


在基础研究和关键技术方面、一系列新概念、新方法和新技术(如腔的Q突变及转镜调Q、行波放大、铼系离子的利用、自由电子振荡辐射等)纷纷提出并获得实施,其中不少具有独创性。注册食品公司


In the basic research and key technology, a series of new concept, new method and new technology (such as the cavity Q mutation and rotating mirror Q-switch, travelling wave amplifier, rhenium ion of utilization, the free electron oscillation radiation) have put forward and implemented, and many of them have originality.


同时,作为具有高亮度、高方向性、高质量等优异特性的新光源,激光很快应用于各技术领域,显示出强大的生命力和竞争力。


At the same time, as a new light source with high brightness, high directivity, high quality and other excellent characteristics, the laser can be used in various technical fields quickly, showing a strong vitality and competitiveness.


通信方面,1964年9月用激光演示传送电视图像,1964年11月实现3~30公里的通话。工业方面,1965年5月激光打孔机成功地用于拉丝模打孔生产,获得显著经济效益。


Communications, in September 1964 with a laser demonstration transmission of television images, in November 1964 to achieve 3 ~ 30 km of the call. The industry in May 1965, laser drilling machine successfully used die punching production, significant economic benefits.


医学方面,1965年6月激光视网膜焊接器进行了动物和临床实验。国防方面,1965年12月研制成功激光漫反射测距机(精度为10米/10公里),1966年4月研制出遥控脉冲激光多普勒测速仪。


In the medical field, the laser retinal welding machine was carried out in June 1965. National defense, in December 1965 the successful development of laser diffuse reflectance (accuracy of 10 m /10 km), in April 1966 developed a remote control pulse laser Doppler velocimetry.

表1我国各类激光器的“第一台”


Table 1 "the first" of all kinds of laser in our country"


名 称 研制成功时间 研 制 人


Name of the successful development of the development of people


He-Ne激光器 1963年7月 邓锡铭等


He-Ne laser July 1963 Deng Ximing et al.


掺钕玻璃激光器 1963年6月 干福熹等


Neodymium doped glass laser in June 1963 Fuxi etc.


GaAs同质结半导体激光器 1963年12月 王守武等


GaAs homogeneous junction semiconductor laser December 1963 Wang Shouwu et al.


脉冲Ar+激光器 1964年10月 万重怡等


Pulsed Ar+ laser using other million in October 1964


CO2分子激光器 1965年9月 王润文等


CO2 molecular laser September 1965 Wang Runwen et al.


CH3I化学激光器 1966年3月 邓锡铭等


CH3I chemical laser March 1966 Deng Ximing et al.


YAG激光器 1966年7月 屈乾华等


YAG laser July 1966 Qu et al.


可以说,在起步阶段我国的激光技术发展迅速,无论是数量还是质量,都和当时国际水平接近,一项创新性技术能够如此迅速赶上世界先进行列,在我国近代科技发展史上并不多见。


It can be said that China laser technology development rapidly in the initial stage, both in quantity and quality, and when the level of close to, an innovative technology can so fast to catch up with the advanced ranks in the world, is rare in the history of the development of modern science and technology in our country.


这些成绩的取得,尤其是能够把物理设想、技术方案顺利地转化成实际激光器件,主要得力于光机所多年来在技术光学、精密机械和电子技术方面积累的综合能力和坚实基础。一项新技术的开发,没有足够的技术支撑是很难形成气候的。


These achievements obtained, particularly to the physical idea and technical scheme successfully transformed into practical laser device, mainly effective in Institute of Optics and fine mechanics, over the years in optical technology, precision machinery and electronic technology accumulation of comprehensive ability and a solid foundation. The development of a new technology, there is not enough technical support is difficult to form a climate.

 

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