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浅谈影响激光制造过程的关键光束特性

大多数的激光应用都要通过光与物质的相互作用这座桥梁才能实现。激光的波长、能量、偏振特性、时间特性以及空间特性都是决定光与物质相互耦合效率的重要因素。


      对金属及其合金而言,激光束的波长越短,吸收率越高。但是这种吸收率的差异只在焊接时初始激光作用的瞬间起决定作用,当深熔焊接过程建立后,波长对吸收率的影响可以忽略。另外波长还影响到光致等离子体的形成和激光束的精细聚焦程度,德国在近五年研究规划中将激光微制造的目标定位在新的激光光源和超精细聚焦系统上,与之相应的超短、超快激光源的研究受到高度重视。


      激光器输出功率是最基本的衡量激光器加工能力的指标。目前已经可以提供最高功率45kW工业应用的CO2激光器。商品化多棒串联的YAG激光器激光输出功率已达6kW,并可采用光纤耦合输出。


此外,许多新型的固体激光器不断涌现。例如,4.4kW大功率半导体泵浦的固体激光器已有商品供应;二极管泵浦的薄片式固体激光器,目前单模块的输出功率已达500W,组合输出已达4kW;端面泵浦的Slab固体激光器也是新型的固体激光器。注册食品公司光纤激光器单光纤在1090nm波长单模输出激光达610W,2kW、6kW的大功率光纤激光器已开始在企业试用。


      激光束与材料耦合时的功率密度(辐照度)比功率本身更具有实际意义,因为高功率密度是激光制造最突出的优点,只有获得足够的功率密度,才能获得理想的加工质量。目前的高功率CO2激光器都兼顾了连续输出和高重复频率脉冲输出两种模式,能够灵活适应各种不同的加工任务。


激光束的光束质量是光制造过程中最为关键的因素,是最能体现激光作为加工工具这把“刀”锋利程度的指标。


      激光作为制造用的“光能源”和“光工具”,其激光能量或功率、光束质量、对光的控制是衡量制造用 “光能源”和“光工具” 的标准。激光能量或功率表征激光制造系统加工能力的可能性;光束质量直接限定了可能实现的加工方法、可能传输的距离、可能获得的焦斑尺寸,以及最终可以获得加工质量;对光的控制是实现产业化应用的条件,这三者是激光制造系统的整体要求,激光这把“刀”的质量,既是工业应用的“金钢钻”,也是激光制造系统激光器发展、进步的重要标志。这正是激光制造系统与通讯激光、医疗激光和军用激光系统的明显区别。


Most of the laser applications have to be realized through the interaction of light and matter. The wavelength, energy, polarization, time and space characteristics of the laser are important factors to determine the coupling efficiency of light and matter.
For metals and their alloys, the wavelength of the laser beam is shorter and the absorption rate is higher. However, the difference of the absorption rate is only determined by the initial laser action at the time of welding, and the effect of wavelength on the absorption rate can be ignored when the deep penetration welding process is established. Another wavelength also affect the photo induced plasma formation and laser beam fine focusing degree, Germany in nearly five years of planning will be laser micro manufacturing goal orientation in the new laser source and super fine focus system, corresponding with the ultra short and ultra fast laser source of by attaches great importance to.
The output power of the laser is the most basic index to measure the processing power of the laser. At present, it has been able to provide the highest power CO2 for industrial applications of 45kW lasers. The output power of the YAG laser with multi rod series is 6kW, and the output of the optical fiber coupling can be used.
In addition, many new types of solid state lasers are emerging. For example, 4.4 kW High power diode pumped solid state lasers have supply of goods; sheet type operation of diode pumped solid state lasers, at present single module output power has reached 500W, combination output has reached 4kw; end pumped slab solid state laser is a new type of solid state lasers. The high power fiber laser of the single mode output laser of fiber laser at 1090nm wavelength reaches 2kW, 6kW, 610W has begun to use in the enterprise.
Laser beam material is coupled with the power density (irradiance) than the power itself is more practical significance, because high power density laser manufacturing is the most prominent advantages, only to get enough power density, in order to obtain the ideal quality of processing. At present, high power CO2 laser has two modes of continuous output and high repetition rate pulse output, which can flexibly adapt to different processing tasks.
The beam quality of laser beam is the most important factor in the manufacturing process, and it is the most important factor that can reflect the degree of the "knife".
Laser as a manufacturing "light energy" and "light tool", the laser energy or power, beam quality, the control of light is a measure of manufacturing "light energy" and "light tool" standard. The possibility of laser energy and power characterization of laser manufacturing system processing capacity; beam quality directly limit the possible processing method, possible transmission distance, the size of the focal spot, and the final can get the processing quality; control of light is the condition to realize the industrial application, which is the overall requirements of laser manufacturing system, laser this "the knife" quality, is the industrial application of the "diamond" and laser manufacturing system of laser development, progress important symbol. This is the obvious difference between the laser manufacturing system and the communication laser, medical laser and military laser system

 

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